Powdery mildew (barley)
At first, powdery mildew can be observed as small greyish patches of fluffy fungal growth (mycelium) on the upper surface of the lower leaves. These spots resemble small cushions of white powder. Leaf tissue on the opposite side of an infected leaf turns pale green to yellow. The fungus only infects the epidermal layer and can be easily scrapped off with a fingernail. Infections can also occur on the leaf sheaths and ears. Leaves remain green and active for some time following infection, then gradually become chlorotic and die off. As the disease progresses, the mycelium often becomes dotted with minute black points (cleistothecia), which are the sexual fruiting bodies of the fungus.